Glad to see you here!, as you imagine, to build a robot you
need a basic knowledge in electronics, do not worry if you must
to have idea of electronics, all that you will learn here, are
some very basic knowledge that will serve to build Your Robot.
The robot's brain is going to build a small digital computer
that is within an integrated circuit. A component that is called
"microcontroller (uC for short), and is one of the most spectacular
of modern microelectronics.
The connection and communication of the brain with the motors
and actuators of our "bug" intelligent, as well
as sensors that will be used to detect obstacles or path tracking,
require additional interface electronics that fit the characteristics
element that sends the information (such as sensors) and orders
(Engines) to the recipient (our uC).
All the auxiliary circuitry is not contained in the microcontroller
and will consist of various electronic components such as: resistors,
capacitors, diodes, transistors, etc ... The purpose of this section
is to briefly, clearly and simply the basic principles that control
the operation of those components that are going to work.
Later, you can see in the section of Sensors
and Actuators, additional circuitry such schemes and how they
connect with each other. If you do not understand or need more
information, feel free to visit the forum
and ask your question, of all we are happy to answer all your
The fundamental principles of electronics are based on electricity,
whose foundation lies in the structure of matter. The atoms of
all materials consist of a core and an envelope. At the core of
this are the protons, which are positively charged particles and
neutrons. The container, rotating at high speed in orbit, are
the electrons, which are particles with negative electric charge.
When these charges are positive than negative, it is said that
the atom is neutral. The electrons in the orbits support a force
of attraction by the nucleus. Some atoms have electrons spinning
in orbits far from the nucleus, these electrons can escape from
the orbit if there is an attraction force greater than the outer
core. If this happens to an atom is positively charged. The amount
of electrons move from atom to atom per unit time, is what is
called electric current and its unit of measurement is the Ampere
The body voltage is positive or negative electrical charge that
is volume. This is measured in volts (V). The difference in voltage
or potential is the voltage difference between two bodies, and
is the magnitude that is of real interest, because when two bodies
come into contact, the passage of electrons toward the more positive
body attracts them is entirely of the potential difference between
The image shows a 9 V battery that powers an LED and a resistance of 1000 Ohmmios, the current flowing, according to Ohm's law. Is I = 9/1.000 = 0.009 A.
Ohm's Law. When two bodies communicate with different voltage
through a conductor cable will produce a stream of electrons to
the body which attracts more positive. Ohm's law quantifies the
value of electric current (A), which is created by connecting
two bodies with potential difference (V) through a conductor cable
that has a certain resistance to the passage of electrons. The
opposition offered by the body to the passage of electric current
is called "resistance" and is measured in ohms.
The formula for Ohm's law is as follows: I (Amps) = V (voltage)
/ R (Resistance).
The following figure shows the flow of current (electrons)
that are attracted by the positive plate, we can say that when
we say that the batteries are exhausted, it is because they
have lost electrons.
In the top menu you can see information relating to the various
components, Take a look at what most interests you, remember that
there is also a menu of tricks and utilities on the part of the